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Q:URL Encoding using C#

Q:用C # URL编码

I have an application which I've developed for a friend. It sends a POST request to the VB forum software and logs someone in (with out setting cookies or anything).

Once the user is logged in I create a variable that creates a path on their local machine.

c:\tempfolder\date\username

The problem is that some usernames are throwing "Illegal chars" exception. For example if my username was mas|fenix it would throw an exception..

Path.Combine( _      
  Environment.GetFolderPath(System.Environment.SpecialFolder.CommonApplicationData), _
  DateTime.Now.ToString("ddMMyyhhmm") + "-" + form1.username)

I don't want to remove it from the string, but a folder with their username is created through FTP on a server. And this leads to my second question. If I am creating a folder on the server can I leave the "illegal chars" in? I only ask this because the server is Linux based, and I am not sure if Linux accepts it or not..

EDIT: It seems that URL encode is NOT what I want.. Here's what I want to do:

old username = mas|fenix
new username = mas%xxfenix

Where %xx is the ASCII value or any other value that would easily identify the character.

我有一个应用程序,我已经开发了一个朋友。它发送一个POST请求到VB论坛软件和日志的人(没有设置cookie或什么的)。

一旦用户登录,我会创建一个变量,在其本地机器上创建一个路径。

C:\ tempfolder \日期\用户名

问题是,用户名是“非法字符”异常抛出。例如,如果我的用户名是MAS | Fenix会抛出一个例外。

Path.Combine( _      
  Environment.GetFolderPath(System.Environment.SpecialFolder.CommonApplicationData), _
  DateTime.Now.ToString("ddMMyyhhmm") + "-" + form1.username)

我不想把它从字符串,但他们的用户名文件夹通过FTP服务器上创建。这引出了我的第二个问题。如果我在服务器上创建一个文件夹,我可以把“非法字符”?我只问这个,因为服务器是基于Linux的,我不知道Linux是否接受它。

编辑:似乎URL编码不是我想要的..这就是我想做的:

old username = mas|fenix
new username = mas%xxfenix

在为xx是ASCII值或其他值会很容易识别特征。

answer1: 回答1:

Edit: Note that this answer is now out of date. See Siarhei Kuchuk's answer below for a better fix

UrlEncoding will do what you are suggesting here. With C#, you simply use HttpUtility, as mentioned.

You can also Regex the illegal characters and then replace, but this gets far more complex, as you will have to have some form of state machine (switch ... case, for example) to replace with the correct characters. Since UrlEncode does this up front, it is rather easy.

As for Linux versus windows, there are some characters that are acceptable in Linux that are not in Windows, but I would not worry about that, as the folder name can be returned by decoding the Url string, using UrlDecode, so you can round trip the changes.

编辑:注意,这个答案现在过时了。看到Siarhei Kuchuk的回答下面的一个更好的解决

urlencoding会做你认为这里。C #,你只需使用httputility,提。

你也可以使用regex非法字符并替换,但这变得更复杂,因为你必须有某种形式的状态机(开关…例如,用正确的字符替换。自从UrlEncode这前,这是相当容易的。

对于Linux与Windows,还有一些人物,在Linux,不在Windows中是可以接受的,但是我不担心,因为文件夹名可以返回解码URL字符串,使用urldecode的,所以你可以来回的变化。

answer2: 回答2:

I've been experimenting with the various methods .NET provide for URL encoding. Perhaps the following table will be useful (as output from a test app I wrote):

Unencoded UrlEncoded UrlEncodedUnicode UrlPathEncoded EscapedDataString EscapedUriString HtmlEncoded HtmlAttributeEncoded HexEscaped
A         A          A                 A              A                 A                A           A                    %41
B         B          B                 B              B                 B                B           B                    %42
C         C          C                 C              C                 C                C           C                    %43
D         D          D                 D              D                 D                D           D                    %44

a         a          a                 a              a                 a                a           a                    %61
b         b          b                 b              b                 b                b           b                    %62
c         c          c                 c              c                 c                c           c                    %63
d         d          d                 d              d                 d                d           d                    %64

0         0          0                 0              0                 0                0           0                    %30
1         1          1                 1              1                 1                1           1                    %31
2         2          2                 2              2                 2                2           2                    %32
3         3          3                 3              3                 3                3           3                    %33

[space]   +          +                 %20            %20               %20              [space]     [space]              %20
!         !          !                 !              !                 !                !           !                    %21
"         %22        %22               "              %22               %22              "      "               %22
#         %23        %23               #              %23               #                #           #                    %23
$         %24        %24               $              %24               $                $           $                    %24
%         %25        %25               %              %25               %25              %           %                    %25
&         %26        %26               &              %26               &                &       &                %26
'         %27        %27               '              '                 '                '       '                %27
(         (          (                 (              (                 (                (           (                    %28
)         )          )                 )              )                 )                )           )                    %29
*         *          *                 *              *                 *                *           *                    %2A
+         %2b        %2b               +              %2B               +                +           +                    %2B
,         %2c        %2c               ,              %2C               ,                ,           ,                    %2C
-         -          -                 -              -                 -                -           -                    %2D
.         .          .                 .              .                 .                .           .                    %2E
/         %2f        %2f               /              %2F               /                /           /                    %2F
:         %3a        %3a               :              %3A               :                :           :                    %3A
;         %3b        %3b               ;              %3B               ;                ;           ;                    %3B
<         %3c        %3c               <              %3C               %3C              &lt;        &lt;                 %3C
=         %3d        %3d               =              %3D               =                =           =                    %3D
>         %3e        %3e               >              %3E               %3E              &gt;        >                    %3E
?         %3f        %3f               ?              %3F               ?                ?           ?                    %3F
@         %40        %40               @              %40               @                @           @                    %40
[         %5b        %5b               [              %5B               %5B              [           [                    %5B
\         %5c        %5c               \              %5C               %5C              \           \                    %5C
]         %5d        %5d               ]              %5D               %5D              ]           ]                    %5D
^         %5e        %5e               ^              %5E               %5E              ^           ^                    %5E
_         _          _                 _              _                 _                _           _                    %5F
`         %60        %60               `              %60               %60              `           `                    %60
{         %7b        %7b               {              %7B               %7B              {           {                    %7B
|         %7c        %7c               |              %7C               %7C              |           |                    %7C
}         %7d        %7d               }              %7D               %7D              }           }                    %7D
~         %7e        %7e               ~              ~                 ~                ~           ~                    %7E

Ā         %c4%80     %u0100            %c4%80         %C4%80            %C4%80           Ā           Ā                    [OoR]
ā         %c4%81     %u0101            %c4%81         %C4%81            %C4%81           ā           ā                    [OoR]
Ē         %c4%92     %u0112            %c4%92         %C4%92            %C4%92           Ē           Ē                    [OoR]
ē         %c4%93     %u0113            %c4%93         %C4%93            %C4%93           ē           ē                    [OoR]
Ī         %c4%aa     %u012a            %c4%aa         %C4%AA            %C4%AA           Ī           Ī                    [OoR]
ī         %c4%ab     %u012b            %c4%ab         %C4%AB            %C4%AB           ī           ī                    [OoR]
Ō         %c5%8c     %u014c            %c5%8c         %C5%8C            %C5%8C           Ō           Ō                    [OoR]
ō         %c5%8d     %u014d            %c5%8d         %C5%8D            %C5%8D           ō           ō                    [OoR]
Ū         %c5%aa     %u016a            %c5%aa         %C5%AA            %C5%AA           Ū           Ū                    [OoR]
ū         %c5%ab     %u016b            %c5%ab         %C5%AB            %C5%AB           ū           ū                    [OoR]

The columns represent encodings as follows:

UrlEncoded: HttpUtility.UrlEncode

UrlEncodedUnicode: HttpUtility.UrlEncodeUnicode

UrlPathEncoded: HttpUtility.UrlPathEncode

EscapedDataString: Uri.EscapeDataString

EscapedUriString: Uri.EscapeUriString

HtmlEncoded: HttpUtility.HtmlEncode

HtmlAttributeEncoded: HttpUtility.HtmlAttributeEncode

HexEscaped: Uri.HexEscape

NOTES:

  1. HexEscape can only handle the first 255 characters. Therefore it throws an ArgumentOutOfRange exception for the Latin A-Extended characters (eg Ā).

  2. This table was generated in .NET 4.0 (see Levi Botelho's comment below that says the encoding in .NET 4.5 is slightly different).

EDIT:

I've added a second table with the encodings for .NET 4.5. See this answer: http://stackoverflow.com/a/21771206/216440

EDIT 2:

Since people seem to appreciate these tables, I thought you might like the source code that generates the table, so you can play around yourselves. It's a simple C# console application, which can target either .NET 4.0 or 4.5:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;
// Need to add a Reference to the System.Web assembly.
using System.Web;

namespace UriEncodingDEMO2
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            EncodeStrings();

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Press any key to continue...");
            Console.Read();
        }

        public static void EncodeStrings()
        {
            string stringToEncode = "ABCD" + "abcd"
            + "0123" + " !\"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^_`{|}~" + "ĀāĒēĪīŌōŪū";

            // Need to set the console encoding to display non-ASCII characters correctly (eg the 
            //  Latin A-Extended characters such as ĀāĒē...).
            Console.OutputEncoding = Encoding.UTF8;

            // Will also need to set the console font (in the console Properties dialog) to a font 
            //  that displays the extended character set correctly.
            // The following fonts all display the extended characters correctly:
            //  Consolas
            //  DejaVu Sana Mono
            //  Lucida Console

            // Also, in the console Properties, set the Screen Buffer Size and the Window Size 
            //  Width properties to at least 140 characters, to display the full width of the 
            //  table that is generated.

            Dictionary<string, Func<string, string>> columnDetails =
                new Dictionary<string, Func<string, string>>();
            columnDetails.Add("Unencoded", (unencodedString => unencodedString));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlEncodedUnicode",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlEncodeUnicode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlPathEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlPathEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("EscapedDataString",
                (unencodedString => Uri.EscapeDataString(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("EscapedUriString",
                (unencodedString => Uri.EscapeUriString(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HtmlEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.HtmlEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HtmlAttributeEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.HtmlAttributeEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HexEscaped",
                (unencodedString
                    =>
                    {
                        // Uri.HexEscape can only handle the first 255 characters so for the 
                        //  Latin A-Extended characters, such as A, it will throw an 
                        //  ArgumentOutOfRange exception.                       
                        try
                        {
                            return Uri.HexEscape(unencodedString.ToCharArray()[0]);
                        }
                        catch
                        {
                            return "[OoR]";
                        }
                    }));

            char[] charactersToEncode = stringToEncode.ToCharArray();
            string[] stringCharactersToEncode = Array.ConvertAll<char, string>(charactersToEncode,
                (character => character.ToString()));
            DisplayCharacterTable<string>(stringCharactersToEncode, columnDetails);
        }

        private static void DisplayCharacterTable<TUnencoded>(TUnencoded[] unencodedArray,
            Dictionary<string, Func<TUnencoded, string>> mappings)
        {
            foreach (string key in mappings.Keys)
            {
                Console.Write(key.Replace(" ", "[space]") + " ");
            }
            Console.WriteLine();

            foreach (TUnencoded unencodedObject in unencodedArray)
            {
                string stringCharToEncode = unencodedObject.ToString();
                foreach (string columnHeader in mappings.Keys)
                {
                    int columnWidth = columnHeader.Length + 1;
                    Func<TUnencoded, string> encoder = mappings[columnHeader];
                    string encodedString = encoder(unencodedObject);

                    // ASSUMPTION: Column header will always be wider than encoded string.
                    Console.Write(encodedString.Replace(" ", "[space]").PadRight(columnWidth));
                }
                Console.WriteLine();
            }
        }
    }
}

我一直在尝试各种方法,NET提供URL编码。也许下表将是有用的(作为输出从一个测试应用程序我写):

Unencoded UrlEncoded UrlEncodedUnicode UrlPathEncoded EscapedDataString EscapedUriString HtmlEncoded HtmlAttributeEncoded HexEscaped
A         A          A                 A              A                 A                A           A                    %41
B         B          B                 B              B                 B                B           B                    %42
C         C          C                 C              C                 C                C           C                    %43
D         D          D                 D              D                 D                D           D                    %44

a         a          a                 a              a                 a                a           a                    %61
b         b          b                 b              b                 b                b           b                    %62
c         c          c                 c              c                 c                c           c                    %63
d         d          d                 d              d                 d                d           d                    %64

0         0          0                 0              0                 0                0           0                    %30
1         1          1                 1              1                 1                1           1                    %31
2         2          2                 2              2                 2                2           2                    %32
3         3          3                 3              3                 3                3           3                    %33

[space]   +          +                 %20            %20               %20              [space]     [space]              %20
!         !          !                 !              !                 !                !           !                    %21
"         %22        %22               "              %22               %22              &quot;      &quot;               %22
#         %23        %23               #              %23               #                #           #                    %23
$         %24        %24               $              %24               $                $           $                    %24
%         %25        %25               %              %25               %25              %           %                    %25
&         %26        %26               &              %26               &                &amp;       &amp;                %26
'         %27        %27               '              '                 '                &#39;       &#39;                %27
(         (          (                 (              (                 (                (           (                    %28
)         )          )                 )              )                 )                )           )                    %29
*         *          *                 *              *                 *                *           *                    %2A
+         %2b        %2b               +              %2B               +                +           +                    %2B
,         %2c        %2c               ,              %2C               ,                ,           ,                    %2C
-         -          -                 -              -                 -                -           -                    %2D
.         .          .                 .              .                 .                .           .                    %2E
/         %2f        %2f               /              %2F               /                /           /                    %2F
:         %3a        %3a               :              %3A               :                :           :                    %3A
;         %3b        %3b               ;              %3B               ;                ;           ;                    %3B
<         %3c        %3c               <              %3C               %3C              &lt;        &lt;                 %3C
=         %3d        %3d               =              %3D               =                =           =                    %3D
>         %3e        %3e               >              %3E               %3E              &gt;        >                    %3E
?         %3f        %3f               ?              %3F               ?                ?           ?                    %3F
@         %40        %40               @              %40               @                @           @                    %40
[         %5b        %5b               [              %5B               %5B              [           [                    %5B
\         %5c        %5c               \              %5C               %5C              \           \                    %5C
]         %5d        %5d               ]              %5D               %5D              ]           ]                    %5D
^         %5e        %5e               ^              %5E               %5E              ^           ^                    %5E
_         _          _                 _              _                 _                _           _                    %5F
`         %60        %60               `              %60               %60              `           `                    %60
{         %7b        %7b               {              %7B               %7B              {           {                    %7B
|         %7c        %7c               |              %7C               %7C              |           |                    %7C
}         %7d        %7d               }              %7D               %7D              }           }                    %7D
~         %7e        %7e               ~              ~                 ~                ~           ~                    %7E

Ā         %c4%80     %u0100            %c4%80         %C4%80            %C4%80           Ā           Ā                    [OoR]
ā         %c4%81     %u0101            %c4%81         %C4%81            %C4%81           ā           ā                    [OoR]
Ē         %c4%92     %u0112            %c4%92         %C4%92            %C4%92           Ē           Ē                    [OoR]
ē         %c4%93     %u0113            %c4%93         %C4%93            %C4%93           ē           ē                    [OoR]
Ī         %c4%aa     %u012a            %c4%aa         %C4%AA            %C4%AA           Ī           Ī                    [OoR]
ī         %c4%ab     %u012b            %c4%ab         %C4%AB            %C4%AB           ī           ī                    [OoR]
Ō         %c5%8c     %u014c            %c5%8c         %C5%8C            %C5%8C           Ō           Ō                    [OoR]
ō         %c5%8d     %u014d            %c5%8d         %C5%8D            %C5%8D           ō           ō                    [OoR]
Ū         %c5%aa     %u016a            %c5%aa         %C5%AA            %C5%AA           Ū           Ū                    [OoR]
ū         %c5%ab     %u016b            %c5%ab         %C5%AB            %C5%AB           ū           ū                    [OoR]

列代表编码如下:

urlencoded:HttpUtility.UrlEncode

UrlEncodedUnicode:HttpUtility.UrlEncodeUnicode

urlpathencoded:HttpUtility.UrlPathEncode

escapeddatastring:uri.escapedatastring

escapeduristring:uri.escapeuristring

htmlencoded:HttpUtility.HtmlEncode

htmlattributeencoded:HttpUtility.HtmlAttributeEncode

hexescaped:uri.hexescape

笔记:

  1. hexescape只能处理前255个字符。因此,扔一个argumentoutofrange例外a-extended拉丁字符(如Ā)。

  2. 这张桌子是产生在.NET 4(见Levi Botelho的评论说,编码在.NET 4.5略有不同)。

编辑:

我已经添加了第二个表的编码。净4.5。看到这样的回答:http://stackoverflow.com/a/21771206/216440

编辑2:

因为人们似乎喜欢这些表,我想你可能喜欢生成表的源代码,这样你就可以自己玩了。这是一个简单的C #控制台应用程序,它可以针对.NET 4或4.5:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;
// Need to add a Reference to the System.Web assembly.
using System.Web;

namespace UriEncodingDEMO2
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            EncodeStrings();

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Press any key to continue...");
            Console.Read();
        }

        public static void EncodeStrings()
        {
            string stringToEncode = "ABCD" + "abcd"
            + "0123" + " !\"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\\]^_`{|}~" + "ĀāĒēĪīŌōŪū";

            // Need to set the console encoding to display non-ASCII characters correctly (eg the 
            //  Latin A-Extended characters such as ĀāĒē...).
            Console.OutputEncoding = Encoding.UTF8;

            // Will also need to set the console font (in the console Properties dialog) to a font 
            //  that displays the extended character set correctly.
            // The following fonts all display the extended characters correctly:
            //  Consolas
            //  DejaVu Sana Mono
            //  Lucida Console

            // Also, in the console Properties, set the Screen Buffer Size and the Window Size 
            //  Width properties to at least 140 characters, to display the full width of the 
            //  table that is generated.

            Dictionary<string, Func<string, string>> columnDetails =
                new Dictionary<string, Func<string, string>>();
            columnDetails.Add("Unencoded", (unencodedString => unencodedString));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlEncodedUnicode",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlEncodeUnicode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("UrlPathEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.UrlPathEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("EscapedDataString",
                (unencodedString => Uri.EscapeDataString(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("EscapedUriString",
                (unencodedString => Uri.EscapeUriString(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HtmlEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.HtmlEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HtmlAttributeEncoded",
                (unencodedString => HttpUtility.HtmlAttributeEncode(unencodedString)));
            columnDetails.Add("HexEscaped",
                (unencodedString
                    =>
                    {
                        // Uri.HexEscape can only handle the first 255 characters so for the 
                        //  Latin A-Extended characters, such as A, it will throw an 
                        //  ArgumentOutOfRange exception.                       
                        try
                        {
                            return Uri.HexEscape(unencodedString.ToCharArray()[0]);
                        }
                        catch
                        {
                            return "[OoR]";
                        }
                    }));

            char[] charactersToEncode = stringToEncode.ToCharArray();
            string[] stringCharactersToEncode = Array.ConvertAll<char, string>(charactersToEncode,
                (character => character.ToString()));
            DisplayCharacterTable<string>(stringCharactersToEncode, columnDetails);
        }

        private static void DisplayCharacterTable<TUnencoded>(TUnencoded[] unencodedArray,
            Dictionary<string, Func<TUnencoded, string>> mappings)
        {
            foreach (string key in mappings.Keys)
            {
                Console.Write(key.Replace(" ", "[space]") + " ");
            }
            Console.WriteLine();

            foreach (TUnencoded unencodedObject in unencodedArray)
            {
                string stringCharToEncode = unencodedObject.ToString();
                foreach (string columnHeader in mappings.Keys)
                {
                    int columnWidth = columnHeader.Length + 1;
                    Func<TUnencoded, string> encoder = mappings[columnHeader];
                    string encodedString = encoder(unencodedObject);

                    // ASSUMPTION: Column header will always be wider than encoded string.
                    Console.Write(encodedString.Replace(" ", "[space]").PadRight(columnWidth));
                }
                Console.WriteLine();
            }
        }
    }
}
answer3: 回答3:

You should encode only the user name or other part of the URL that could be invalid. URL encoding a URL can lead to problems since something like this:

string url = HttpUtility.UrlEncode("http://www.google.com/search?q=Example");

Will yield

http%3a%2f%2fwww.google.com%2fsearch%3fq%3dExample

This is obviously not going to work well. Instead, you should encode ONLY the value of the key/value pair in the query string, like this:

string url = "http://www.google.com/search?q=" + HttpUtility.UrlEncode("Example");

Hopefully that helps. Also, as teedyay mentioned

您应该仅对可能无效的URL的用户名或其他部分进行编码。URL编码的URL可能会导致问题,因为这样的东西:

string url = HttpUtility.UrlEncode("http://www.google.com/search?q=Example");

将产量

HTTP为2f 2fwww 3a % % % %。谷歌。COM 2fsearch 3fq % 3dexample

这显然是不行的。相反,您应该只对查询字符串中的键值/值对的值进行编码,例如:

string url = "http://www.google.com/search?q=" + HttpUtility.UrlEncode("Example");

希望帮助。同时,作为teedyay提到

c#  .net  urlencode